Search Results for distributional-cost-effectiveness-analysis

This book is the definitive all-in-one guide for anyone who wishes to learn about, commission, and use distributional cost-effectiveness analysis to promote both equity and efficiency in health and healthcare.

Author: Richard Cookson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198838197

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 700

Health inequalities blight lives, generate enormous costs, and exist everywhere. This book is the definitive all-in-one guide for anyone who wishes to learn about, commission, and use distributional cost-effectiveness analysis to promote both equity and efficiency in health and healthcare.
2020-09 By Richard Cookson

This is particularly relevant for Armenia, where smoking is among the leading risk factors of mortality among the population.

Author: Iryna Postolovska


ISBN: OCLC:1120883939



View: 526

At present, tobacco taxes in Armenia are among the lowest in Europe and Central Asia. Global experience has shown that increasing taxes on tobacco is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions. This is particularly relevant for Armenia, where smoking is among the leading risk factors of mortality among the population.

Asaria M, Griffin S, Cookson R, Whyte S, Tappenden P. Distributional cost-
effectiveness analysis of health care programmes--a methodological case study
of the UK bowel Cancer screening Programme. Health Econ. 2015;24(6):742–54.

Author: Han-Mo Chiu

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811574825



View: 420


Beyond Cost-Effectiveness Ole F. Norheim, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Joseph Millum ...
(2015). Distributional cost-effectiveness analysis of health care programmes—a
methodological case study of the UK Bowel Cancer Screening Programme.

Author: Ole F. Norheim

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190912772

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 691

Global health is at a crossroads. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has come with ambitious targets for health and health services worldwide. To reach these targets, many more billions of dollars need to be spent on health. However, development assistance for health has plateaued and domestic funding on health in most countries is growing at rates too low to close the financing gap. National and international decision-makers face tough choices about how scarce health care resources should be spent. Should additional funds be spent on primary prevention of stroke, treating childhood cancer, or expanding treatment for HIV/AIDS? Should health coverage decisions take into account the effects of illness on productivity, household finances, and children's educational attainment, or just focus on health outcomes? Does age matter for priority setting or should it be ignored? Are health gains far in the future less important than gains in the present? Should higher priority be given to people who are sicker or poorer? Global Health Priority-Setting provides a framework for how to think about evidence-based priority-setting in health. Over 18 chapters, ethicists, philosophers, economists, policy-makers, and clinicians from around the world assess the state of current practice in national and global priority setting, describe new tools and methodologies to address establishing global health priorities, and tackle the most important ethical questions that decision-makers must consider in allocating health resources.
2019-10-29 By Ole F. Norheim

If current smoking patterns continue, tobacco will kill about one billion people this century. Tobacco taxes are among the most cost-effective tobacco control measures in the world.

Author: World Bank Group


ISBN: OCLC:1120925679



View: 392

Globally more than 7 million deaths a year are attributed to tobacco use, approximately 10 percent of which are among nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Most of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and among a relatively young population. If current smoking patterns continue, tobacco will kill about one billion people this century. Tobacco taxes are among the most cost-effective tobacco control measures in the world. Yet often countries are reluctant to raise tobacco taxes due to their perceived regressivity. This study simulates the impact of higher tobacco prices resulting from increases in tobacco excise tax in the Kyrgyz Republic. The study uses extended cost-effectiveness analysis to measure the distributional consequences of proposed excise tax increases on: (a) averted premature tobacco-related deaths; (b) averted out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures on treating tobacco-related disease; (c) government savings resulting from averted treatment costs for those covered under the State Guaranteed Benefit Package; and (d) averted poverty cases as a result of OOP spending. The Kyrgyz Republic has already introduced gradual tobacco tax increases that will take place up to 2022, but steps should be taken to ensure that these increases result in real price increases and to strengthen other tobacco control measures such as ensuring access to cessation services.

Implications of Alternative Foundations for Distributional Equity It should be noted
that, in the formulation of costeffectiveness analysis founded upon the
compensation test, the optimal costeffectiveness threshold differs across
individuals ...

Author: Marthe R. Gold

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199880423

Category: Medical

Page: 456

View: 543

A unique, in-depth discussion of the uses and conduct of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) as decision-making aids in the health and medical fields, this volume is the product of over two years of comprehensive research and deliberation by a multi-disciplinary panel of economists, ethicists, psychometricians, and clinicians. Exploring cost-effectiveness in the context of societal decision-making for resource allocation purposes, this volume proposes that analysts include a "reference-case" analysis in all CEAs designed to inform resource allocation and puts forth the most explicit set of guidelines (together with their rationale) ever defined on the conduct of CEAs. Important theoretical and practical issues encountered in measuring costs and effectiveness, evaluating outcomes, discounting, and dealing with uncertainty are examined in separate chapters. Additional chapters on framing and reporting of CEAs elucidate the purpose of the analysis and the effective communication of its findings. Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine differs from the available literature in several key aspects. Most importantly, it represents a consensus on standard methods--a feature integral to a CEA, whose principal goal is to permit comparisons of the costs and health outcomes of alternative ways of improving health. The detailed level at which the discussion is offered is another major distinction of this book, since guidelines in journal literature and in CEA-related books tend to be rather general--to the extent that the analyst is left with little guidance on specific matters. The focused overview of the theoretical background underlying areas of controversy and of methodological alternatives, and, finally, the accessible writing style make this volume a top choice on the reading lists of analysts in medicine and public health who wish to improve practice and comparability of CEAs. The book will also appeal to decision-makers in government, managed care, and industry who wish to consider the uses and limitations of CEAs.
1996-07-18 By Marthe R. Gold

... is substantially downweighted ( Figure 9.7 ( b ) ) the CEAC shows poor
evidence for cost - effectiveness regardless of K ... approach to evidence
synthesis and costeffectiveness analysis simultaneously derives the joint
posterior distribution ...

Author: David J. Spiegelhalter

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471499757

Category: Mathematics

Page: 408

View: 439

READ ALL ABOUT IT! David Spiegelhalter has recently joined the ranks of Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin and Stephen Hawking by becoming a fellow of the Royal Society. Originating from the Medical Research Council’s biostatistics unit, David has played a leading role in the Bristol heart surgery and Harold Shipman inquiries. Order a copy of this author’s comprehensive text TODAY! The Bayesian approach involves synthesising data and judgement in order to reach conclusions about unknown quantities and make predictions. Bayesian methods have become increasingly popular in recent years, notably in medical research, and although there are a number of books on Bayesian analysis, few cover clinical trials and biostatistical applications in any detail. Bayesian Approaches to Clinical Trials and Health-Care Evaluation provides a valuable overview of this rapidly evolving field, including basic Bayesian ideas, prior distributions, clinical trials, observational studies, evidence synthesis and cost-effectiveness analysis. Covers a broad array of essential topics, building from the basics to more advanced techniques. Illustrated throughout by detailed case studies and worked examples Includes exercises in all chapters Accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of statistics Authors are at the forefront of research into Bayesian methods in medical research Accompanied by a Web site featuring data sets and worked examples using Excel and WinBUGS - the most widely used Bayesian modelling package Bayesian Approaches to Clinical Trials and Health-Care Evaluation is suitable for students and researchers in medical statistics, statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry, and anyone involved in conducting clinical trials and assessment of health-care technology.
2004-01-16 By David J. Spiegelhalter

As a principal, the government seeks to design a cost- effective package of
financial policies that will induce a private firm—an ... Our distributional analysis
distinguishes net benefits that accrue to a private investor and to the government.

Author: Frank Camm

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 9780833048653

Category: Political Science

Page: 96

View: 263

The government, as a principal, may seek to induce a private investor, as an agent, to build and operate an unconventional-oil production plant to promote early production experience with such plants. Facing significant uncertainty about the future, it also wants to limit the cost to the public of doing this. This report offers an analytic way to design and assess packages of policy instruments that the government can use to achieve its goal.
2008-12-30 By Frank Camm

Thirdly, although distributional effects may be ignored in the cost-benefit analysis
on the ground that the selection of an ... COST-EFFECTIVENESS MODELS FOR
STANDARD-SETTING One public interest response to the information problems

Author: Anthony I Ogus

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781847316882

Category: Law

Page: 380

View: 882

This is a reprint of Anthony Ogus' classic study of regulation,first published in the 1990s. It examines how, since the last decades of the twentieth century there have been fundamental changes in the relationship between the state and industry. With the aid of economic theory Anthony Ogus critically examines the ways in which public law has been adapted to the task of regulating industrial activity and provides a systematic overview of the theory and forms of social and economic regulation. In particular, he explores the reasons why governments regulate, for which, broadly speaking, two theoretical frameworks exist. First 'public interest' theories determine that regulation should aim to improve social and economic welfare. Second, 'economic' theories suggest that regulation should aim to satisfy the demands of private interests. The book also looks at the evolution of the forms of regulation in Britain, extending to the policies of privatization and deregulation which were so characteristic of the period. The author skilfully evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of the different forms of regulation, particularly in the light of the two theoretical frameworks, but also by involving an analysis of how firms respond to the various kinds of incentives and controls offered by government. A significant feature of the book is its analysis of the choices made by governments between the different forms of regulation and the influence exerted by interest groups (including bureaucrats) and EC law.
2004-10-15 By Anthony I Ogus

... 227, 270 dialysis 208–209 dignity xix, 35 discounted future earnings 95, 99
discount rates 79–81 see also cost benefit analysis, cost effectiveness analysis
disease 105–107 genetic xxiii, 135–153 distribution 125–126 distributional
inequity ...

Author: G.J. Agich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400947047

Category: Medical

Page: 280

View: 582

Medicine, morals and money have, for centuries, lived in uneasy cohabitation. Dwelling in the social institution of care of the sick, each needs the other, yet each is embarrassed to admit the other's presence. Morality, in particular, suffers embarrassment, for it is often required to explain how money and medicine are not inimical. Throughout the history of Western medicine, morality's explanations have been con sistently ambiguous. Pla.o held that the physician must cultivate the art of getting paid as well as the art of healing, for even if the goal of medicine is healing and not making money, the self-interest of the craftsman is satisfied thereby [4]. Centuries later, a medieval medical moralist, Henri de Mandeville, said: "The chief object of the patient ... is to get cured ... the object of the surgeon, on the other hand, is to obtain his money ... ([5], p. 16). This incompatibility, while general, is not universal. Throughout history, medical practitioners have resolved the problem - either in conscience or to their satisfaction. Some physicians have been so reluctant to make a profit from the ills of those whom they treated that they preferred to live in poverty. Samuel Johnson described his friend, Dr. Robert Levet, a Practiser of Physic: No summons mock'd by chill delay, No petty gain disdain'd by pride; The modest wants of ev'ry day The toil of ev'ry day supplied [3].
2012-12-06 By G.J. Agich

Application of cost-effectiveness analysis/ cost-benefit analysis (CEA/CBA) to
health care represents a fairly new endeavor. ... For example, the inability of most
health care CEA/CBAs to incorporate distributional considerations (177,179) is ...


Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 9781428924680


Page: 200

View: 976

1980 By


Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9789246564026



View: 895

2010 By

arbitrary, which adds an additional layer of uncertainty that must itself be
subjected to sensitivity analysis. ... These distributions will often reflect the
standard distributional assumptions employed to estimate confidence intervals,
as described in almost any ... can be found in the book by Gelman and
colleagues (1995) and a specific primer on cost-effectiveness analysis by O'
Hagan and Luce (2003).

Author: Andrew Briggs

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191004957

Category: Medical

Page: 256

View: 911

In financially constrained health systems across the world, increasing emphasis is being placed on the ability to demonstrate that health care interventions are not only effective, but also cost-effective. This book deals with decision modelling techniques that can be used to estimate the value for money of various interventions including medical devices, surgical procedures, diagnostic technologies, and pharmaceuticals. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of the appropriate representation of uncertainty in the evaluative process and the implication this uncertainty has for decision making and the need for future research. This highly practical guide takes the reader through the key principles and approaches of modelling techniques. It begins with the basics of constructing different forms of the model, the population of the model with input parameter estimates, analysis of the results, and progression to the holistic view of models as a valuable tool for informing future research exercises. Case studies and exercises are supported with online templates and solutions. This book will help analysts understand the contribution of decision-analytic modelling to the evaluation of health care programmes. ABOUT THE SERIES: Economic evaluation of health interventions is a growing specialist field, and this series of practical handbooks will tackle, in-depth, topics superficially addressed in more general health economics books. Each volume will include illustrative material, case histories and worked examples to encourage the reader to apply the methods discussed, with supporting material provided online. This series is aimed at health economists in academia, the pharmaceutical industry and the health sector, those on advanced health economics courses, and health researchers in associated fields.
2006-08-17 By Andrew Briggs

... among members of the population with respect to health poses a variety of
important problems for analysis and policy. ... involved when cost-benefit or cost-
effectiveness analyses are applied in the presence of population heterogeneity.

Author: James D. Smith

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226764603

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 344

View: 790

This pioneering volume uses modern statistical and simulation techniques to explain the process of wealth transmission and the persistent problem of the unequal distribution of wealth. These papers reflect a shift from the traditional cross-sectional measurement to an intertemporal focus by attempting to model mathematically the actual process by which wealth is acquired and transmitted. There are many questions to be answered: What are the factors influencing saving? What is the role of mating? What decides ownership between spouses? How are rare assets distributed by divorce? What are the patterns of behavior in making gifts and bequests? And what is the effect of the relative ages of the persons involved?
2008-04-15 By James D. Smith

The experience of the public distribution system in Kerala indicates that , under
certain circumstances , these obstacles can be overcome ... While it was
established that a food subsidy scheme might be more cost - effective in
achieving the consumption objective than a ... Further , the analysis does not
discuss alternative short- and long - term strategies for increasing the
consumption levels of the poor .

Author: Poykayil Simon George

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896290085

Category: Social Science

Page: 68

View: 660

Agricultural production and food availability; Public distribution of food; Ration offtake; The impact of rationing; Relative efficiency of public distribution and income transfer; Economic viability of rationing without central government subsidy.

When a particular distributional goal is the principal objective of a program , one
can measure attainment of that goal by a CEA that assesses the costs of
alternative programmatic approaches . For example , the effectiveness of a
program ...

Author: Kenneth E. Warner


ISBN: UOM:39015003211169

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 742

Bibliografi, usa. The substance and structure of the text follow the book's title: Principles, practice and potential. Chapter 1 provides background on the nature, magnitude, and causes of the health care cost problem, concluding with a discussion of the cost containment ideas and acti- vities. Chapter 2 introduces the reader to cba-cea, discussing the chapter closes with some recent developments indicating the current intensity of interest in cba-cea in both health professional and po- licy circles. Chapter 3, on principles, presents the methodology of cba-cea. Chapter 4, on practice, examinies the health care cba-cea literature by presenting our empirical analysis of trends in the growth and character ofthe litterature, identifying substantive to- pics of interest. Chapter 5, on potential, evaluates the health po- licy uses and future usefulness of cba-cea.

Thus specific methods for the application of Bayesian health economic
evaluation are developed. ... on both cost and clinical benefit data, and we use
several possible distributional assumptions to perform the costeffectiveness

Author: Gianluca Baio

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439895559

Category: Mathematics

Page: 244

View: 663

Health economics is concerned with the study of the cost-effectiveness of health care interventions. This book provides an overview of Bayesian methods for the analysis of health economic data. After an introduction to the basic economic concepts and methods of evaluation, it presents Bayesian statistics using accessible mathematics. The next chapters describe the theory and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis from a statistical viewpoint, and Bayesian computation, notably MCMC. The final chapter presents three detailed case studies covering cost-effectiveness analyses using individual data from clinical trials, evidence synthesis and hierarchical models and Markov models. The text uses WinBUGS and JAGS with datasets and code available online.
2012-11-12 By Gianluca Baio

Regional and Distributional Effects Fredrick L. Golladay, Robert H. Haveman ...
focus attention on the resource allocation impacts of public measures; benefit—
cost analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis have been widely applied in
planning ...

Author: Fredrick L. Golladay

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781483272405

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 216

View: 236

The Economic Impacts of Tax—Transfer Policy: Regional and Distributional Effects deals with evaluating proposed income-transfer policies through tax modeling. The book analyzes the direct and indirect effects of two variants of a negative income tax plan. These are the standard negative income tax and the Family Assistance Plan. By studying the indirect effects of income-maintenance programs on industries, occupations, and different regions, the authors point to understanding the effectiveness of alternative income-maintenance programs. Proposed changes in national taxes and transfer policies aim to achieve income redistribution. In their studies and models, the authors noted that the full impact of these tax policies throughout the income spectra covering different income classes, industries, occupations, and regions is different from that gathered from observations involving the direct effects of these schemes. The authors cite some policy implications resulting from their study, such as the redistributional impacts of direct tax-transfer scheme are not as efficient as expected and that increasing the demand for low-skilled workers and improving their job qualities is one way of improving income distribution. The text is valuable for economists and government policymakers in the finance and labor sectors, as well as for sociologists and political economists.
2013-10-22 By Fredrick L. Golladay

Efficiency. Chapter Outline Key Concepts in Efficiency Analysis Ex Ante and Ex
Post Efficiency Analyses CostBenefit ... Prices Opportunity Costs Secondary
Effects (Externalities) Distributional Considerations Discounting Comparing
Costs to ...

Author: Peter H. Rossi

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 9781452258447

Category: Social Science

Page: 480

View: 204

Since Peter H. Rossi, Mark W. Lipsey, and Howard E. Freeman first published Evaluation: A Systematic Approach, more than 90,000 readers have considered it the premier text on how to design, implement, and appraise social programs through evaluation. In this, the completely revised Seventh Edition, authors Rossi and Lipsey include the latest techniques and approaches to evaluation as well as guidelines to tailor evaluations to fit programs and social contexts. With decades of hands-on experience conducting evaluations, the authors provide scores of examples to help students understand how evaluators deal with various critical issues. They include a glossary of key terms and concepts, making this the most comprehensive and authoritative evaluation text available. Thoroughly revised, the Seventh Edition now includes * Substantially more attention to outcome measurement * Lengthy discussions of program theory, including a section about detecting program effects and interpreting their practical significance * An augmented and updated discussion of major evaluation designs * A detailed exposition of meta-analysis as an approach to the synthesis of evaluation studies * Alternative approaches to evaluation * Examples of successful evaluations * Discussions of the political and social contexts of evaluation
2003-10-14 By Peter H. Rossi

determination of a project's present value , they are quite relevant to an
assessment of the project's distributional ... Cost - effective analysis is more
limited because it does not seek an answer to the questions : How much is the
output worth ?

Author: Thomas F. Pogue

Publisher: Boston : Houghton Mifflin

ISBN: PSU:000004319221

Category: Finance, Public

Page: 514

View: 482

1978 By Thomas F. Pogue

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