Search Results for chemical-mutagens

Reproducibility of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 5. 2. Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5. 3. Chemical Mutagens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Author: Alexander Hollaender

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461321477

Category: Medical

Page: 572

View: 891

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Volume 9 of Chemical Mutagens consists mainly of chapters discussing the development and validation of short-term assays to detect the mutagenic effects of environmental chemicals. These chapters include an assay with the grasshopper neuroblast, a comparison of mutagenic responses of human lung-derived and skin-derived diploid fibroblasts, a forward-mutation assay in Salmonella, a multigene sporulation test in Bacillus subtilis, a specific locus assay in mouse lymphoma cells, a study of the induction of bacteriophage lambda, and the granuloma pouch assay. In addition, there are two chapters on the identification of mutagens in cooked food and in human feces. Frederick 1. de Serres Research Triangle Park, North Carolina vii Contents Chapter 1 The Grasshopper Neuroblast Short-Term Assay for Evaluating the Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Chromosomes and Cell Kinetics 1 Mary Esther Gaulden, Jan C. Liang, and Martha J. Ferguson 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Embryo Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. 1. Species. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. 2. Origin of Colonies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. 3. Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. 4. Colony Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. 5. Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. 6. Allergy to Grasshoppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3. Grasshopper Egg, Embryo, and Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3. 1. The Egg Shell and Membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3. 2. Embryonic Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. 3. Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4. 1. Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4. 2. Preparation of Embryos for Cell Analysis . . . . . . . . . 34 4. 3. Analysis of Mutagen Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 . . . 5. Response of the Grasshopper Neuroblast to Mutagens . . . . 50 5. 1. Reproducibility of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 5. 2. Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5. 3. Chemical Mutagens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2012-12-06 By Alexander Hollaender

Author: Frederick J. De Serr

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461330721

Category: Science

Page: 486

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2013-06-29 By Frederick J. De Serr

This article considers ways in which such a genetic emergency might be promptly detected. A mutation-detecting system should be relevant in that it tests for effects that are as closely related as possible to those that are feared.

Author: Alexander Hollaender

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461589693

Category: Medical

Page: 342

View: 922

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The best protection against environmental mutagens is to identify them before they ever come into general use. But it is always possible that some substance will escape detection and affect a large number of persons without this being realized until later generations. This article considers ways in which such a genetic emergency might be promptly detected. A mutation-detecting system should be relevant in that it tests for effects that are as closely related as possible to those that are feared. It should be sensitive enough to detect a moderate increase in mutation rate, able to discover the increase promptly before more damage is done, responsive to various kinds of mutational events, and designed in such a way as to maxi mize the probability that the Gause of an increase can be found. Methods based on germinal mutation necessarily involve enormous numbers of persons and tests. On the other hand, with somatic mutations the individual cell becomes the unit of measurement rather than the in dividual person. For this reason, I think that somatic tests are preferable to germinal tests, despite the fact that it is germinal mutations which are feared.
2012-12-06 By Alexander Hollaender

This book will serve as single source material for its utility to students, investigators, and those involved with public health.

Author: L Fishbein

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323153256

Category: Science

Page: 378

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Chemical Mutagens: Environmental Effects on Biological Systems brings together relevant facts about synthetic and naturally occurring mutagenic chemicals. Organized into two parts, this book begins with a simple discussion on the modern concepts of the gene at the molecular and biochemical levels. The first part also looks into the different types of mutations and how they form, as well as the biological systems used for their detection. The second part deals with the individual chemical mutagens of environmental significance, including their manufacture, occurrence, method of detection, degradation, and metabolism. It also discusses the types of mutation chemical mutagens induce in the various test systems that have been utilized. This book will serve as single source material for its utility to students, investigators, and those involved with public health.
2012-12-02 By L Fishbein

Volume 8 of Chemical Mutagens covers a wide range of topics in this continuously changing field. This volume includes chapters on the detection of genetic damage in mammalian sperm both at specific loci and over the entire genome.

Author: Frederick J. De Serr

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461336961

Category: Medical

Page: 386

View: 724

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Volume 8 of Chemical Mutagens covers a wide range of topics in this continuously changing field. This volume includes chapters on the detection of genetic damage in mammalian sperm both at specific loci and over the entire genome. The discussion of in vitro techniques for working with mammalian cells covers not only specific locus assays but also cellular activation systems. Another chapter extensively discusses the need for a revised protocol for the micronucleus assay. Structure activity relationships are investigated in a chapter dealing with hair dye constituents. One of the most comprehensive chapters deals with problems associated with the detection of mutagenic effects in defined human populations. Finally, there is a detailed presentation of a comprehensive study tabulating the genetic bioassay data on some known or suspected human carcinogens. In keeping with our policy of publishing important legislation in the area of chemical mutagens, we have also included the Council of the European Communities Directive of 18 September 1979. Frederick J. de Serres Research Triangle Park, North Carolina vii Contents Chapter 1 Detection of Effects of Mutagens in Human Populations George R. Hoffmann 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Monitoring Progeny for Evidence of Germ-Cell Mutations. . . . . 3 2. 1. The Classical Approach: Phenotypic Monitoring . . . . . . . 3 2. 2. Monitoring for Changes in Gene Products . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Detection of Gene Mutations in Somatic Cells. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. 1. Drug-Resistant Lymphocytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. 2. Hemoglobin Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4. Nongenetic Indicators of Mutagen Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4. 1. Alkylation of Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4. 2. DNA Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2011-11-30 By Frederick J. De Serr

Author: Alexander Hollaender

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: UOM:39015004326206

Category: Medical

Page: 364

View: 135

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Author: Alexander Hollaender

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0306371049

Category: Medical

Page: 364

View: 122

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1976-01-08 By Alexander Hollaender

M. M. Cohen and K. Hirschhorn, Cytogenetic studies in animals, in: Chemical
Mutagens: Principles and Methods forTheir Detection, Vol. 2 (A. Hollaender, ed.),
p. 515, Plenum Press, New York (1971). 22. L. B. Russell, Validation of the in vivo
 ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: PSU:000005675685

Category: Chemical mutagenesis

Page:

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1971 By

Specifically, the relative importance of any single factor, such as age, radiation
treatment, or exposure to chemical mutagens, can more easily be investigated. A
battery of test systems have been devised using laboratory mammals to examine
 ...

Author: Alexander Hollaender

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015010654666

Category: Chemical mutagenesis

Page:

View: 350

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Due to the increasing activity in efforts to perfect techniques for detecting chemical mutagens and their effects on man, it is planned to continue this series of volumes as necessary to keep abreast of current findings.

Author: Alexander Hollaender

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461589738

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 712

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The ready acceptance and wide demand for copies of the first two volumes of Chemical Mutagens: Principles and Methods Jar Their Detection have demon strated the need for wider dissemination of information on this timely and urgent subject. Therefore, it was imperative that a third volume be prepared to include more detailed discussions on techniques of some of the methods that were presented from a theoretical point of view in the first two volumes, and to update this rapidly expanding field with current findings and the new developments that have taken place in the past three years. Also included is a special chapter by Dr. Charlotte Auerbach giving the historical background of the discovery of chemical mutagenesis. Methods for recognizing mutagenic compounds in vitro are a necessary preliminary step toward arriving at satisfactory solutions for recognizing significant mutation rates in man, which must be done before our test tube methods of detection can be considered reliable. Two chapters in this volume make important contributions to this problem. Due to the increasing activity in efforts to perfect techniques for detecting chemical mutagens and their effects on man, it is planned to continue this series of volumes as necessary to keep abreast of current findings.
2012-02-12 By Alexander Hollaender

Author: Alexander Hollaender

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: UOM:39015005805356

Category: Medical

Page: 364

View: 159

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And conclusions; Introduction; A primer on genetics, mutation, mutagens, and the implications of mutagenesis; Metabolism and pharmacologic disposition of mutagens and promutagens; The nature of test systems; Strategies for risk assessment: ...

Author: National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Chemical Environmental Mutagens

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015004351204

Category: Medical

Page: 295

View: 158

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And conclusions; Introduction; A primer on genetics, mutation, mutagens, and the implications of mutagenesis; Metabolism and pharmacologic disposition of mutagens and promutagens; The nature of test systems; Strategies for risk assessment: the choice and use of test systems to estimative human germinal mututation; Strategies for risk assessment: relation between mutation rate and human welfare; Testing and monitoring human populations; A mutagen assessment program; Some additional issues and research suggestions.

Scientific Study from the year 2017 in the subject Biology - Genetics / Gene Technology, grade: 8.6, , course: ASPEE College of Horticulture & Forestry, language: English, abstract: This investigation on mutation induced in gladiolus ...

Author: Sudha Patil

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783668544338

Category: Science

Page: 9

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Scientific Study from the year 2017 in the subject Biology - Genetics / Gene Technology, grade: 8.6, , course: ASPEE College of Horticulture & Forestry, language: English, abstract: This investigation on mutation induced in gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus) cv. American Beauty through physical and chemical mutagens was carried out at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat). Corms were treated with different doses of gamma rays (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 kR), EMS (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) and DES (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%). Different vegetative, floral and yield characters were taken under study. The gladiolus is known worldwide for its attractive spikes and has gained much importance as 'Queen of bulbous flowers' with ever increasing demand in the flower market. Among the commercial flowers, the gladiolus is one of the most important flowers in India because of its majestic spikes containing attractive, elegant and delicate florets of various shades, sequential opening of flowers for a longer duration and good keeping quality of cut flowers. Gladiolas need attention towards genetic improvement as the demand of flowers is increasing continuously. Since garden varieties of today come from diverse genetic parentage that are heteroploids ranging from 2n=30 to 180 and hypo aneauploids so the reproduction by seeds in this case has no meaning to maintain the varietal identity, but for evolution of new forms. Due to its heterozygosity in genetic constitutions, this makes it promising test material for induction of mutagens where only one or a few characters are to be improved upon without changing the entire genotype which offers promising possibilities. The gladiolus is vegetatively grown to perfection and so mutation breeding offers great potentialities as the mutated part can be conveniently perpetuated by vegetative means resulting in the development of new forms. Hence, the present investigation was conducted and the emphasis was laid on finding out desirable variations caused by physical mutagens (gamma radiations) and chemical mutagens (EMS & DES) in gladiolus cv. American Beauty.
2017-10-09 By Sudha Patil

One of the most striking differences between radiation, which readily leads to translocation multivalents, and chemical mutagens is the cell-cycle ...

Author: Frederick J. de Serres

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461566250

Category: Medical

Page: 497

View: 241

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New developments in the study of environmental mutagens continue to evolve in this rapidly emerging field. In Volume 7 of Chemical Mutagens, we have focused on various new techniques for the detection of genetic damage in somatic cells and germ cells of mammals and the use of lower eukaryotic microorganisms to detect aneuploidy as well as other types of genetic damage. Attention has also been given to the role of in vitro metabolic activation as a mechanism for modifying the genetic effects of different environmental chemicals. In a chapter on compar ative mutagenesis, reaction kinetics and their relationship to the mu tagenic action of monofunctional alkylating agents in higher eukaryotic organisms are examined. In another chapter, the pharmacology and toxicology of nitrites and nitrates, which are in widespread distribution in the environment, are discussed in detail. The books in this series have provided a mechanism for the publication of many important new developments in the study of the genetic effects of environmental chemicals. This series was launched by Dr. Alexander Hollaender who, beginning in 1971, edited Volumes 1-4 and then coedited Volumes 5-7. The success of his lO-year effort with these volumes is another testimony to Dr. Hollaender's many contri butions to the field of environmental mutagenesis. As Dr.
2012-12-06 By Frederick J. de Serres

This series was launched by Dr. Alexander Hollaender who, beginning in 1971, edited Volumes 1-4 and then coedited Volumes 5-7.

Author: Frederick J. de Serres

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461566266

Category: Medical

Page: 497

View: 664

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New developments in the study of environmental mutagens continue to evolve in this rapidly emerging field. In Volume 7 of Chemical Mutagens, we have focused on various new techniques for the detection of genetic damage in somatic cells and germ cells of mammals and the use of lower eukaryotic microorganisms to detect aneuploidy as well as other types of genetic damage. Attention has also been given to the role of in vitro metabolic activation as a mechanism for modifying the genetic effects of different environmental chemicals. In a chapter on compar ative mutagenesis, reaction kinetics and their relationship to the mu tagenic action of monofunctional alkylating agents in higher eukaryotic organisms are examined. In another chapter, the pharmacology and toxicology of nitrites and nitrates, which are in widespread distribution in the environment, are discussed in detail. The books in this series have provided a mechanism for the publication of many important new developments in the study of the genetic effects of environmental chemicals. This series was launched by Dr. Alexander Hollaender who, beginning in 1971, edited Volumes 1-4 and then coedited Volumes 5-7. The success of his lO-year effort with these volumes is another testimony to Dr. Hollaender's many contri butions to the field of environmental mutagenesis. As Dr.
2014-01-31 By Frederick J. de Serres

and characterization of the L5178Y / TK + / - mouse lymphoma mutagen assay
system . Mutat . Res . 59 , 61 - 108 ( 1979 ) . Cohen , M . M . , Hirschhorn , K . J . :
Cytogenetic studies in animals . In : Hollaender , A . ( Ed . ) : Chemical Mutagens
 ...

Author: W. Gary Flamm

Publisher: Princeton Scientific Pub

ISBN: 0911131124

Category: Medical

Page: 264

View: 355

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1985 By W. Gary Flamm

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1029278453

Category: Biochemical genetics

Page:

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1971 By

As editor I want especially to thank Dr. Ernst Freese for helpful co operation in preparing these volumes, and to express my appreclatlOn to Drs.

Author: Alexander Hollaender

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461589673

Category: Medical

Page: 310

View: 447

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As editor I want especially to thank Dr. Ernst Freese for helpful co operation in preparing these volumes, and to express my appreclatlOn to Drs. Kurt Hirschhorn and Marvin Legator, the other members of the editorial board. Alexander Hollaender January 1971 Preface The purpose of these volumes is to encourage the development and ap plication of testing and monitoring procedures to avert significant human exposure to mutagenic agents. The need for protection against exposure to possibly mutagenic chemicals is only now coming to be generally realized. The recently issued Report of the Secretary's Commission on Pesticides and Their Possible Effects on Health (the Mrak Report-U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, December 1969) has made an important start. Its Panel on Mutagenicity recommends that all currently used pesticides be tested for mutagenicity in several recently developed and relatively simple systems. Whether recommendations such as these are actually put into effect will depend on convincing government, industry, and the public that the problem is important, that the proposed tests would be effective, and that they can be conducted at a cost that is not prohibitive. Why is it important to screen environmental agents for mutagenic activity? To those who will read this book, the answer is self-evident. The sine qua non of all that we value and all that we are is our genetic heritage.
2012-10-20 By Alexander Hollaender

Author: Bruce Stillman

Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

ISBN: UOM:39015007271896

Category: Medical

Page: 367

View: 398

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1979 By Bruce Stillman

Author: Frederick J. De Serr

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461297117

Category: Science

Page: 306

View: 242

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2011-10-13 By Frederick J. De Serr

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