Search Results for atmospheric-pollutants-in-forest-areas

The proceedings presented in this volume are a substantial contribution to the understanding of deposition and interception of pollutants in forest-areas.

Author: H.W. Georgii

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400947368

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 982

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In November 1981 a first symposium with the topics of "Acid Deposition of Atmospheric Pollutants" was organised in OberursellTaunus to introduce the problems and first results of research-activities on wet and dry deposition of pollutants and on acid precipitation. In the meantime the hazard to forest and vegetation became more dramatic and research-projects to investigate the input of pollutants to forest-ecosystems have been initiated by several interdisciplinary groups. The rapidly increasing interest in the problems of forest decay and the many open questions with respect to the diagnosis of the forest-damage were the background for the organisation of a second symposium which was held in November 1985 at the same location in Oberursel/Taunus. It was mainly concerned with new techniques of sampling and analyzing pollutants in forest areas. Besides deposition, one important pathway of pollutants in orographic terrain is the interception of fog-droplets by vegetation. Special emphasis was laid on the chemical composition of fog. The symposium successfully assembled scientists from the field of atmospheric research with those studying the effect of pollutants on trees and vegetation in order to reduce the many open questions in connection with forest desease. The proceedings presented in this volume are a substantial contribution to the understanding of deposition and interception of pollutants in forest-areas. Thanks to the authors the volume contains a lot of new research ·results and presents therefore a true picture of our present knowledge.
2012-12-06 By H.W. Georgii

This volume is based on a workshop on "Effects of accumulation of air pollutants in forest ecosystems'; held in GOttingen, Federal Republic of Germany, from May 16-18, 1982.

Author: B. Ulrich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400969834

Category: Science

Page: 389

View: 816

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This volume is based on a workshop on "Effects of accumulation of air pollutants in forest ecosystems'; held in GOttingen, Federal Republic of Germany, from May 16-18, 1982. This work'shop was initiated and sponsored by the Environmental Agency of the Federal Republic of Germany (project officer: Dr. J. Pankrath) as part of a research contract (project leader: Dr. B. Ulrich). THE PROBLEM SEEN UNDER THE ASPECT OF ADMINISTRATION The problem of forest damage caused by air pollution is not new in Europe. Already in 1983 a comprehensive report from Schroeder and Reuss about vegetation damages by fume in the Harz mountains was published. In 1923, Prof. Dr. Julius Stocklasa of the Bohemian Technical Highschool in Prague was concerned with research of toxical effects of sulphur dioxide in his publication "The damage of vegetation by flue gas and exhalations of facili ties". This comprehensive and instructive work concludes with the sentence: "It is already high time for the governments of all cultural states to take legal, police and private measures in order to prevent damage by flue gases". In the neighbourhood of industries with high gaseous and dust emissions damages have been shown to occur for a long timei these deleterious effects have influenced the growth of trees and in extreme cases have even caused their early death.
2012-12-06 By B. Ulrich

Gaseous air pollutants can have an impact on forest ecosystems inducing visible injury in sensitive species and potentially affecting tree growth, health, and species composition.

Author: Vicent Calatayud

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 9780128055328

Category: Nature

Page: 536

View: 224

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Gaseous air pollutants can have an impact on forest ecosystems inducing visible injury in sensitive species and potentially affecting tree growth, health, and species composition. While several methods exist, passive (diffusive) samplers have been widely used for measuring air pollutants in forest areas, representing a simple, cost-effective method that does not require power supply. In Europe, passive sampling is the principal method used within the intensive monitoring plots of ICP Forests since 2000 and has been proven to provide results comparable to those obtained by conventional monitors. Guidelines for using passive samplers in forest ecosystems and examples of results are provided.
2013-03-16 By Vicent Calatayud

After the creation of the EPA, much of this work was consolidated in one regulatory agency, which resulted in periodic evaluations of the various effects of atmospheric pollution on human health, materials, agriculture, and forest ...

Author: Susan Fox

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461208099

Category: Science

Page: 516

View: 177

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The public's attitude toward air pollution in the United States evolved substantially during the 1960s. One of the results of the nation's emerging environmental ethic was the creation of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in December of 1970. Prior to this time, research was focused on the impacts of air pollution on human health and welfare and was largely conducted by several federal research agencies, which included the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and the U. S. Department of Agricul ture. After the creation of the EPA, much of this work was consolidated in one regulatory agency, which resulted in periodic evaluations of the various effects of atmospheric pollution on human health, materials, agriculture, and forest ecosystems. At the same time that environmental interest was growing in the United States, concern increased in the European scientific community and public over the ecological impacts of acidic deposition. As the magnitude of the damage to European lakes and streams and the widespread decline in Norway spruce and silver fir was reported, concern that similar problems were occurring in the United States increased substantially. This concern was heightened by press reports of high elevation spruce-fir forest declines in the Adirondack and Appalachian Mountains and the decline and death of sugar maples in the northeastern United States and Canada.
2012-12-06 By Susan Fox

T. C. Hutchinson The NATO Advanced Research Workshop detailed in this volume was held in Toronto, Canada, in 1985.

Author: T.C. Hutchinson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642708749

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 652

View: 535

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T. C. Hutchinson The NATO Advanced Research Workshop detailed in this volume was held in Toronto, Canada, in 1985. The purpose of the Workshop was to provide a "state of the art" report on our knowledge of the sensitivities and responses of forests, wetlands and crops to airborne pollutants. Approximately 40 scientific experts from nine countries participated. Most participants were actively involved in research concerning the effects of air pollutants on natural or agro-ecosystems. These pollutants included acidic deposition, heavy metal particulates, sulphur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, acid fogs and mixtures of these. Also invited were experts on various types of ecosystem stresses, physiologi cal mechanisms pertinent to acid deposition, and other areas that were felt by the director to be of direct relevance, including: effects of ethylene on vegetation, the physiology of drought in trees, the nature and role of plant cuticles as barriers to acid rain penetration, the use of dendrochronological techniques in reconstructing the time of onset and the subsequent progression of growth declines, the ability of soils to naturally generate acidity, the role of Sphagnum moss in natural peat land acidity, the use of lichens as indicators of changing air quality, and the magnitude of natural emissions of reduced sulphur gases from tropical rainforests and temperate deciduous forests. The Workshop included a series of invited presentations and subsequent group discussions. These presentations were designed to allow syntheses of our present knowledge as well as detailed questioning and discussion.
2013-06-29 By T.C. Hutchinson

In the early 1980s, forest decline became a matter of public and scientific concern when forest stands with Norway spruce (Picea abies [L. ] Karst. ) showed evident damage on a large geographical scale throughout Europe.

Author: Walfried Michaelis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642604560

Category: Science

Page: 178

View: 263

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In the early 1980s, forest decline became a matter of public and scientific concern when forest stands with Norway spruce (Picea abies [L. ] Karst. ) showed evident damage on a large geographical scale throughout Europe. The causes of the observed symptoms could not be elucidated on the basis of the state of knowledge at that time. Therefore, several research projects were launched both in Germany and in some other countries in order to identify the relevant pathogenic factors. In 1985, the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology decided to include the site "Postturm", forest district Farchau/Ratzeburg, in the spon sorship of the research on forest decline as a site typical for lowlands and a sphere of anthropogenic urban influence. The investigation area is situated about 40 krn east-northeast of the city of Hamburg. Since spruce trees in particular showed severe decline, emphasis was laid on this species. The programme started in 1986 and extended to 1992, with some activities con tinuing beyond this time. Working groups from 13 institutions took part in the overall project.
2012-12-06 By Walfried Michaelis

The chapters in this book present a snapshot of the state of knowledge of air pollution effects at the beginning of the 21st century.

Author: D.F. Karnosky

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080526911

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 492

View: 605

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The chapters in this book present a snapshot of the state of knowledge of air pollution effects at the beginning of the 21st century. From their different disciplines, a distinguished collection of authors document their understanding of how leaves, trees, and forests respond to air pollutants and climate change. Scenarios of global change and air pollution are described. The authors describe responses of forests to climate variability, tropospheric ozone, rising atmospheric CO2, the combination of CO2 and ozone, and deposition of acidic compounds and heavy metals. The responses to ozone receive particular attention because of increasing concern about its damaging effects and increasing concentrations in rural areas. Scaling issues are addressed - from leaves to trees, from juvenile trees to mature trees, from short-term responses to long-term responses, and from small-scale experiments and observations to large-scale forest ecosystems. This book is one major product of a conference sponsored by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, the USDA Forest Service Global Change Northern Stations Program, the Arthur Ross Foundation, NCASI, the Canadian Forest Service, and Michigan Technological University. The conference, held in May 2000 in Houghton, Michigan, USA, was appropriately titled "Air Pollution, Global Change, and Forests in the New Millennium". The Editors, David Karnosky, Kevin Percy, Art Chappelka, Caroline Simpson, and Janet Pikkarainen organized the conference and edited this book.
2003-12-18 By D.F. Karnosky

This book traces centuries of human use and abuse of forest ecosystems by discussing past decades of intense burning, grazing, and timber cutting that added to the natural acidification of the soil.

Author: Sandra Postel

Publisher: Worldwatch Inst

ISBN: UOM:39015007579421

Category: Nature

Page: 54

View: 736

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This book traces centuries of human use and abuse of forest ecosystems by discussing past decades of intense burning, grazing, and timber cutting that added to the natural acidification of the soil. Air pollutants and acids generated by industrial activities worldwide are also considered. Many forests in Europe and North America now receive as much as 30 times more acidity than they would if rain or snow were falling through a pristine atmosphere; ozone levels in many rural areas of Europe and North America are now regularly in the range known to damage trees. The book is organized into six sections, an introduction and bibliography of cited references. Major topic areas discussed include: (1) signs of forest destruction worldwide; (2) pathways of pollution that in most cases are traced back to sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted during the burning of fossil fuels; (3) economic and ecological reality of forest destruction; (4) controlling emissions through requirements for effective technology; (5) international cooperation as an essential factor in controlling a wholesale continental pollution trade; and (6) the emerging realization of the potential economic and ecological consequences of acid rain and air pollution. (BC)
1984 By Sandra Postel

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015004840867

Category: Forests and forestry

Page:

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